Matheus Braga was born in Taubaté, in the state of São Paulo. There, at the age of eleven, he began his studies at the School of Arts Maestro Fêgo Camargo, under the guidance of Geza Kiszely. In 2006 he moved to the city of São Paulo in order to join the Orquestra Experimental de Repertório [Experimental Repertoire Orchestra], and develop his music abilities with the violinist Claudio Micheletti. He took masterclasses with Kristóf Barati, Nicolas Koeckert, Levon Ambartsumian, Fanny Clamagirand, Elisa Fukuda, Ole Bohn, Paulo Bosísio, Alejandro Drago, among others.
Braga was a musician of several São Paulo orchestras, such as the University of São Paulo Symphony, the symphonics of Santo André, São José dos Campos, Bragança Paulista, Taubaté Youth Orchestra, Chamber Orchestra of Jacareí, Philharmonic Orchestra of São José do Rio Preto, and the Cultural Foundation Orchestra from the University of Taubaté. He was a member of the São José dos Campos String Quartet and the Agha Quartet. Braga was also a soloist with the Symphony of São José dos Campos from its 2010 season through its 2013 season.
In 2009 Matheus Braga was a finalist in the 13th Paulo Bosísio National String Competition.